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Lysyl oxidase–like protein LOXL2 promotes lung metastasis of breast cancer

AuthorsSalvador, Fernando ; Martín, Alberto ; López-Menéndez, Celia ; Moreno-Bueno, Gema ; Santos, Vanesa ; Vazquez-Naharro, Alberto; Santamaría, Patricia G.; Morales, Saleta ; Dubus, Pierre R.; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; López-López, Rafael; Tung, Jason C.; Weaver, Valerie M.; Portillo, Francisco ; Cano, Amparo
Issue Date2017
PublisherAmerican Association for Cancer Research
CitationCancer Research 77(21): 5846-5859 (2017)
AbstractThe lysyl oxidase-like protein LOXL2 has been suggested to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, but in vivo evidence has been lacking. Here we provide functional evidence that LOXL2 is a key driver of breast cancer metastasis in two conditional transgenic mouse models of PyMT-induced breast cancer. LOXL2 ablation in mammary tumor cells dramatically decreased lung metastasis, whereas LOXL2 overexpression promoted metastatic tumor growth. LOXL2 depletion or overexpression in tumor cells does not affect extracellular matrix stiffness or organization in primary and metastatic tumors, implying a function for LOXL2 independent of its conventional role in extracellular matrix remodeling. In support of this likelihood, cellular and molecular analyses revealed an association of LOXL2 action with elevated levels of the EMT regulatory transcription factor Snail1 and expression of several cytokines that promote premetastatic niche formation. Taken together, our findings established a pathophysiologic role and new function for LOXL2 in breast cancer metastasis.
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