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Embryonic nodal flow and the dynamics of nodal vesicular parcels

AuthorsH. E. Cartwright, Julyan; Piro, Nicolás; Piro, Oreste ; Tuval, Idan
KeywordsLeft–right development
Biophysical fluid dynamics
Nodal flow
Issue DateFeb-2007
PublisherRoyal Society (Great Britain)
CitationJournal of the Royal Society Interface 4 (12): 49-56 (2007)
AbstractWe address with fluid-dynamical simulations using direct numerical techniques three important and fundamental questions with respect to fluid flow within the mouse node and left–right development. First, we consider the differences between what is experimentally observed when assessing cilium-induced fluid flow in the mouse node in vitro and what is to be expected in vivo. The distinction is that in vivo, the leftward fluid flow across the mouse node takes place within a closed system and is consequently confined, while this is no longer the case on removing the covering membrane and immersing the embryo in a fluid-filled volume to perform in vitro experiments. Although there is a central leftward flow in both instances, we elucidate some important distinctions about the closed in vivo situation. Second, we model the movement of the newly discovered nodal vesicular parcels (NVPs) across the node and demonstrate that the flow should indeed cause them to accumulate on the left side of the node, as required for symmetry breaking. Third, we discuss the rupture of NVPs. Based on the biophysical properties of these vesicles, we argue that the morphogens they contain are likely not delivered to the surrounding cells by their mechanical rupture either by the cilia or the flow, and rupture must instead be induced by an as yet undiscovered biochemical mechanism.
Description9 pages, 5 figures.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2006.0155
Appears in Collections:(IACT) Artículos
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