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"Clean" Liquid Helium

AuthorsGabal Lanau, Miguel; Sesé Monclús, Javier ; Rillo, Conrado; Spagna, Stefano
KeywordsHelium liquefaction
Helium cryogenics
Helium purification
Impedance blockage
Small-scale helium liquefiers
Hydrogen contamination
Issue Date2018
CitationSuperfluids an Superconductors: 68-86 (2018)
AbstractLiquid helium is the coldest fluid that exists in nature. By virtue of this fact, any unwanted substance present in liquid helium, that is, any impurity, will be “frozen” and will be in solid form. In practice, these solid impurities can be easily eliminated to obtain “optically clean” liquid. However, even “optically clean” filtered liquid helium may contain a non-negligible quantity of molecular hydrogen. These minute traces of molecular hydrogen are the causes of a known problem worldwide: the blockage of capillary tubes in helium evaporation cryostats. This problem seriously affects a wide range of cryogenic equipment used in low-temperature physics research at a considerable operational cost increase. In this chapter, we propose an underlying mechanism for this effect and provide a definitive solution by means of production of hydrogen-free liquid helium, that is, not only “optically clean” liquid helium but completely “clean” liquid helium. Moreover, basic superfluidity research studies could benefit from the availability of “clean” liquid helium.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74907
Identifiersdoi: 10.5772/intechopen.74907
isbn: 978-1-78923-204-2
Appears in Collections:(ICMA) Libros y partes de libros
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