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Amelioration of the Oxidative Stress Generated by Simple or Combined Abiotic Stress through the K+ and Ca2+ Supplementation in Tomato Plants

AuthorsGarcía-Martí, María; Piñero, María Carmen; García-Sánchez, Francisco ; Mestre, Teresa C.; López-Delacalle, María; Martínez, Vicente ; Rivero, Rosa M.
KeywordsAbiotic stress combination
Heat stress
Lipid peroxidation
ROS detoxification
Antioxidant-related genes
Antioxidant enzymes
Issue Date30-Mar-2019
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationAntioxidants 8(4): 81 (2019)
AbstractAbiotic stressors such as drought, heat, or salinity are major causes of yield loss worldwide due to the oxidative burst generated under these conditions. Recent studies have revealed that plant response to a combination of different environmental stressors is unique and cannot be deduced from the response developed to each stress when applied individually. Some studies have demonstrated that a different management of some nutrients in the irrigation solution may provide an advantage to the plants against abiotic stressors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate if an increase in potassium (K<sup>+</sup>) and calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) concentration in the nutrient solution may have a positive effect on the amelioration of oxidative stress which occurs under the combination of salinity and heat in tomato plants. Our results indicated that plants irrigated with an increase in K<sup>+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentrations in the irrigation solution from 7mM (K<sup>+</sup>) to 9.8 mM and from 4 mM (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) to 5.6 mM, respectively, induced a recovery of the biomass production compared to the plants treated with salinity or salinity + heat, and subsequently irrigated with the regular Hoagland solution. This was correlated with a better performance of all the photosynthetic parameters, a reduction in the foliar concentration of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and a lower lipid peroxidation rate, and with a better performance of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductactase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), and NADPH oxidase. Our results showed that these enzymes were differentially regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification efficiency under salinity and under the combination of salinity and heat, as compared to those plants irrigated with common Hoagland. An increase in K<sup>+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> in the irrigation solution also induced a lower Na<sup>+</sup> accumulation in leaves and a higher K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup> ratio. Thus, our study highlights the importance of the right management of the plant nutritional status and fertilization in order to counteract the deleterious effects of abiotic stress in plants.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040081
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