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dc.contributor.authorMunuera Fernández, José Maríaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorParedes Nachón, Juan Ignacioes_ES
dc.contributor.authorVillar Rodil, Silviaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorAyán Varela, Migueles_ES
dc.contributor.authorMartínez Alonso, Ameliaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorDíez Tascón, Juan Manueles_ES
dc.identifier.citationNanoscale 8(5): 2982-2998 (2016)es_ES
dc.description.abstractElectrolytic – usually referred to as electrochemical – exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene–Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipFinancial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through project MAT2011–26399 is gratefully acknowledged. Partial funding by Plan de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (PCTI) 2013–2017 del Principado de Asturias and the ERDF (project GRUPIN14–056) is also acknowledged. J.M.M. and M.A.-V. are grateful to the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (MECD) and MINECO, respectively, for their pre-doctoral contracts.es_ES
dc.publisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (UK)es_ES
dc.titleElectrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakeses_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad (España)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderPrincipado de Asturiases_ES
oprm.item.hasRevisionno ko 0 false*
dc.contributor.orcidVillar Rodil, Silvia [0000-0002-5832-9971]es_ES
dc.contributor.orcidParedes Nachón, Juan Ignacio [0000-0002-0044-9153]es_ES
dc.contributor.orcidMunuera Fernández, José María [0000-0002-8176-4795]es_ES
dc.contributor.orcidMartínez Alonso, Amelia [0000-0002-7183-0859]es_ES
dc.contributor.orcidDíez Tascón, Juan Manuel [0000-0001-9219-7266]es_ES
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