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Psychoactive pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in coastal waters of North-Western Spain: Environmental exposure and risk assessment

AuthorsFernández-Rubio, J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Postigo, Cristina ; Mastroianni, Nicola ; López de Alda, Miren ; Barceló, Damià
KeywordsEmerging contaminants
Hazard quotients
Psychoactive drugs
Issue DateJun-2019
CitationChemosphere 224: 379-389 (2019)
AbstractThe knowledge on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, and possible risks, in coastal and marine systems is still limited. This study represents the first attempt at monitoring psychoactive pharmaceuticals (PaPs) (benzodiazepines and anxiolytics) and illicit drugs (IDs) in the Rías Baixas coastal area of Northwestern Spain, an area of economic and ecological relevance, leader in shellfish production. Fourteen PaPs and 9 IDs were detected in the water samples with venlafaxine (59%), benzoylecgonine (40%), EDDP (40%), and citalopram (36%) showing the highest detection frequencies. The highest concentrations were measured for venlafaxine (291 ng L −1 ), benzoylecgonine (142 ng L −1 ), lorazepam (95.9 ng L −1 ), and citalopram (92.5 ng L −1 ). Risk assessment, based on hazard quotients suggested that venlafaxine, citalopram, sertraline, and EDDP were present in concentrations potentially able to cause chronic effects in exposed organisms. Based on the results obtained further monitoring of venlafaxine, citalopram, and EDDP in coastal waters is recommended. © 2019
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