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Title

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation

AuthorsThe Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration; Alberdi, Antxón ; Gómez Fernández, J. L.
KeywordsBlack hole physics
Galaxies: individual (M87)
Galaxy: center
Gravitational lensing: strong
Instrumentation: interferometers
Techniques: high angular resolution
Issue Date10-Apr-2019
PublisherInstitute of Physics Publishing
American Astronomical Society
CitationAstrophysical Journal Letters 875(1): L2 (2019)
AbstractThe Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (λ/D) is ~25 μas, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64 gigabit s−1, exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.© 2019. The American Astronomical Society
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/179919
DOI10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96
ISSN2041-8205
E-ISSN2041-8213
Appears in Collections:(IAA) Artículos
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