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Lysyl oxidase (LOX) limits VSMC proliferation and neointimal thickening through its extracellular enzymatic activity

AuthorsVarona, Saray; Orriols, Mar; Galán, María; Guadall, Anna; Cañes, Laia; Aguiló, Silvia; Sirvent, Marc; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina
Issue Date5-Sep-2018
PublisherNature Publishing Group
CitationScientific Reports 8: 13258 (2018)
AbstractLysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a critical role in extracellular matrix maturation and limits VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. We have investigated whether this anti-proliferative effect relies on the extracellular catalytically active LOX or on its biologically active propeptide (LOX-PP). High expression levels of both LOX and LOX-PP were detected in the vascular wall from transgenic mice over-expressing the full-length human LOX cDNA under the control of SM22α promoter (TgLOX), which targets the transgene to VSMC without affecting the expression of mouse LOX isoenzymes. TgLOX VSMC also secrete high amounts of both mature LOX and LOX-PP. Wild-type (WT) mouse VSMC exposed to VSMC supernatants from transgenic animals showed reduced proliferative rates (low [3H]-thymidine uptake and expression of PCNA) than those incubated with conditioned media from WT cells, effect that was abrogated by β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an inhibitor of LOX activity. Lentiviral over-expression of LOX, but not LOX-PP, decreased human VSMC proliferation, effect that was also prevented by BAPN. LOX transgenesis neither impacted local nor systemic inflammatory response induced by carotid artery ligation. Interestingly, in this model, BAPN normalized the reduced neointimal thickening observed in TgLOX mice. Therefore, extracellular enzymatically active LOX is required to limit both VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31312-w
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