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High performance microdiets for fish larvae. Progress & difficulties

AuthorsConceição, L. E. C.; Engrola, Sofía; Pinto, Wilson; Yúfera, Manuel CSIC ORCID
Issue DateAug-2018
CitationAqua (2018)
AbstractMajor efforts by academia and industry have targeting high performance microdiets for fish larvae since the 1990´s. Progress has been considerable, with good weaning results being currently delivered by several commercial microdiets, for major cultivated species. Over recent years, significant progress on weaning has also been achieved for some candidate species for the expansion of the Aquaculture industry. Still, there is room for substantial improvements in microdiets for marine fish larvae, in particular for the very early stages. Even if we know that fish larvae require diets with high levels of protein, essential fatty acids, and micronutrients, and that these are provided by highly digestible ingredients, the exact nutritional requirements are poorly understood. It is also clear that early nutrition has consequences during the larval, but also later in the juveniles stage, in terms of health status, survival, skeletal deformities and growth performance. Fish species have different nutritional requirements, and high quality ingredients that work very well in a species, may be not suitable for other species. Very early weaning is becoming a reality in several species, and its long-term effects seem to be very positive. Novel ingredients such as microalgae and organic forms of minerals may bring either positive or negative effects on larval quality. Nutrition is always a matter of balance. Moreover, the success of a high-tech microdiet depends also on the feeding techniques used, and needs to meet some specifications in addition to nutritional adequacy to the target species (Fig. 1): it must ensure a high ingestion, allow easy digestion, prevent nutrient loss to the surrounding water by leaching and disaggregation; and present optimal physical properties such as floatability, sinking speed, dispersion both in tank surface and water column. Leaching losses may compromise larval quality by nutrient loss, as well by reduction of water quality. Microencapsulation can reduce nutrient leaching, but also microdiet digestibility, so a good balance is required. As knowledge on larval nutrition progresses and newer technologies become available, better performing microdiets for fish will soon be available. This will mean faster growing larvae, with higher survival rates, that will lead to better quality juveniles. Live feed replacement will increasingly be a reality, leading to many species start feeding exclusively (or almost) on high quality inert microdiets.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en Aqua (We R Aquaculture. World Aquaculture Society + European Aquaculture Society), celebrado en Montpellier (Francia) del 25 al 29 de agosto de 2018.
Appears in Collections:(ICMAN) Comunicaciones congresos

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