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Neuroanatomical correlates of stroke-associated infection and stroke-induced immunodepression

AuthorsUrra, Xabier; Laredo, Carlos; Zhao, Yashu; Amaro, Sergio; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Renú, Arturo; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M. ; Oleaga, Laura; Chamorro, Ángel
Stroke-associated infection
Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping
Issue DateFeb-2017
CitationBrain Behavior and Immunity 60: 142-150 (2017)
Abstract[Background] Infections represent the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. Their main determinants are dysphagia and a transient state of immunodepression. We analyzed whether distinct anatomical brain regions were associated with the occurrence of stroke-associated infections or immunodepression.
[Materials and methods] In 106 patients with acute ischemic stroke, we evaluated the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or other infections together with the characterization of biomarkers of immunodepression. Twenty control subjects served to provide reference values. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, the involvement of gray and white matter structures was correlated with clinical and laboratory findings in crude analyses and in volume adjusted models to rule out associations reflecting differences in the size of the infarction.
[Results] Stroke-associated infection occurred in 22 (21%) patients and prevailed in patients with larger infarcts. Volume adjusted voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping revealed the involvement of the superior and middle temporal gyri, the orbitofrontal cortex, the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus amongst infected patients. These associations were similar for pneumonia but not for urinary tract infections. Lymphopenia was associated with lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Laterality did not influence stroke-associated infections or the presence of immunodepressive traits after volume control. The greatest overlap in the neuroanatomical correlates occurred between pneumonia and dysphagia.
[Conclusion] Infarct volume plays a relevant role in the occurrence of stroke-associated infections, but lesions in specific brain locations such as the superior and lateral temporal lobe and the orbitofrontal cortex are also associated with increased infectious risk, especially pneumonia.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2016.10.004
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