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Title

Age-dependent change in oxidative stress biomarkers and essential elements in blood of red deer

AuthorsPareja-Carrera, Jennifer; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E. ; Mateo, Rafael
KeywordsVitamins
Antioxidant enzymes
Trace elements
Biomarkers
Deer
Issue Date2016
CitationSETAC Europe 26th Annual Meeting (2016)
AbstractChanges in the concentration of the essential elements in the blood of animals throughout their life may be indicative of periods of greatest vulnerability to deficiencies and associated diseases. Here we have studied the changes in antioxidant biomarkers and essential elements in the blood of females of farmed red deer along their life. These changes are discussed in relationship with the incidence of enzootic ataxia, white muscle disease and reproductive failure in farmed deer. Blood samples of female red deer (n=132) from birth to >6 years old were analysed to determine the concentrations of essential elements with roles as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes (i.e. Se for glutathione peroxidase –GPX–, and Zn, Cu and Mn for superoxide dismutase –SOD). Moreover the activity of these antioxidant enzymes (GPx and SOD) and antioxidant vitamins (retinol and α-tocopherol) was measured in the same blood samples. In addition, samples of plants, soil and water from the same study area were analysed to identify possible deficiencies and interactions of trace elements in the diet of the studied deer. Levels of Zn and Mn in blood decreased with age, whereas Se and Cu levels showed an increase during the first year of age and then stabilized at slightly lower levels the following years. Farmed deer showed deficiency levels of Cu during most of their life and, at a lesser extent, were also Se-deficient. The activity of GPX increased along the life of deer, while a decreasing trend was found for SOD. In the case of vitamins, retinol increased during the first year of age and tocopherol peaked at 3-4 years of age. Positive correlations were observed between the blood levels of Se and GPx activity and between levels of Zn/Cu/Mn and SOD activity. These results indicate that trace element deficiencies described above (especially Cu) may have an effect on the antioxidant capacity (especially SOD activity) of the animals at adult stages, when reproduction effort may increase antioxidant requirements. Cu deficiency in farmed deer could be related to low levels of Cu in soil of the study area or to elevated levels or sulphates in water that could lead to the formation of non-bioavailable forms of Cu in the digestive tract of deer. Low levels of Mo in soil did not support the hypothesis of a negative interaction of this element with Cu. In summary, the use of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as effect biomarkers of the exposure to pollutants should be always considered taking into account the age of the animals and the levels of essential elements acting as antioxidant cofactors.
DescriptionPresentado al Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Europe 26th Annual Meeting, celebrado en Nantes (Francia) del 22 al 26 de mayo de 2016.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/175961
Appears in Collections:(IREC) Comunicaciones congresos
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