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Using protein hydrolysates to improve performance and quality of marine fish larvae: Combining nutrition physiology, feed technology and tracer studies

AuthorsConceição, L. E. C.; Richard, Nadège; Vareilles, Mahaut de; Canada, Paula; Santos, André; Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Yúfera, Manuel CSIC ORCID ; Engrola, Sofía
Issue DateMay-2014
Citation16th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (2014)
AbstractA moderate inclusion of protein hydrolysates (PH) in diets for altricial fish larvae has been reported to enhance feed intake, improve maturation of the digestive tract, improve larval quality, improve larval capacity for processing dietary proteins, improve growth and increase survival. However, a high inclusion of PH leads to poor growth and often low survival rates. The poor ability of early larval stages of fish to efficiently digest inert microdiets, when compared to live feed, may be attributed to their limited ability to denaturate and enzymatically cleave complex proteins. A confounding factor in many studies is that low molecular weight (MW) dietary nitrogen, such as PH, can easily leach into water. The main challenge in protein nutrition of fish larvae is to develop a highly digestible microdiet while controlling leaching losses, as encapsulation techniques often make microdiets difficult to digest. The present work reviews recent findings adding to the discussion on the ideal form of presenting dietary nitrogen in feeds for altricial fish larvae. Including high levels of low MW PH in sparid larvae microdiets that led to poor performance, higher amino acid (AA) catabolism, and a strong impact on larvae whole body proteome, including energy and AA metabolism, and protein chaperoning and degradation. This detrimental effect could have been caused by protein overloading of larval digestive and metabolic capacities, due to a fast influx of AA shortly after the meals. However, when 0.5-30 kDa hydrolysates were included at high levels in a seabream diet, in an attempt to overcome this, poor growth was still observed. Even if protein digestion and catabolism did not seem to be affected, an augmented expression of proteins related to sarcomeric protein degradation and energy metabolism point to impaired anabolic efficiency induced by a diet rich in moderate MW PH. Moreover, tracer studies with model peptides of different MW not only confirm that larval digestive capacity for more complex peptides increases with development, but further suggest that MW is not the only factor affecting the digestibility of peptides. In addition, progress in encapsulation of PH allows for controlled release of peptides and AA in the gut, which may improve protein retention. The combination of zootechnical performance data, with effects on nutrition physiology arising from tracer studies and omic ́s data, and improvements in microdiet technology, have improved our understanding on the ideal form for supplying dietary nitrogen in feeds for altricial fish larvae. Still, further work on PH is needed to develop a high performance inert microdiet to feed the early stages of marine fish larvae, in particular concerning the effects of bioactive peptides in PH, and their role in modulating the gut microbiota, immune function, antioxidative status, appetite and digestion.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en eñ 16th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF 2014), celebrado en Cairns (Australia) del 25 al 30 de mayo de 2014.
Appears in Collections:(ICMAN) Comunicaciones congresos
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