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Contractility, differential tension and membrane removal lead zebrafish epiboly biomechanics

AuthorsMarsal, María; Hernández-Vega, Amayra ; Martín-Blanco, Enrique
Issue Date29-Jun-2017
PublisherTaylor & Francis
CitationCell Cycle 16(14) : 1328-1335 (2017)
AbstractPrecise tissue remodeling during development is essential for shaping embryos and optimal organ function. Epiboly is an early gastrulation event by which the blastoderm expands around the yolk to engulf it. Three different layers are involved in this process, an epithelial layer (the enveloping layer, EVL), the embryo proper, constituted by the deep cells (DCs), and the yolk cell. Although teleost epiboly has been studied for many years, a clear understanding of its mechanics was still missing. Here we present new information on the cellular, molecular and mechanical elements involved in epiboly that, together with some other recent data and upon comparison with previous biomechanical models, lets conclude that the expansion of the epithelia is passive and driven by active cortical contraction and membrane removal in the adjacent layer, the External Yolk Syncytial Layer (E-YSL). The isotropic actomyosin contraction of the E-YSL cortex generates an anisotropic stress pattern and a directional net movement consequence of the differences in the deformation response of the 2 opposites adjacent domains (EVL and the Yolk Cytoplasmic Layer - YCL). Contractility is accompanied by the local formation of membrane folds and its removal by Rab5ab dependent macropinocytosis. The increase in area of the epithelia during the expansion is achieved by cell-shape changes (flattening) responding to spherical geometrical cues. The counterbalance between the geometry of the embryo and forces dissipation among different elements is therefore essential for epiboly global coordination
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2017.1327489
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