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Title

Aerosol sources in subway environments

AuthorsMinguillón, María Cruz CSIC ORCID ; Reche, Cristina CSIC ORCID; Martins, Vânia ORCID; Amato, Fulvio CSIC ORCID ; De Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Centelles, Sonia; Querol, Xavier CSIC ORCID ; Moreno, Teresa CSIC ORCID
KeywordsAerosols
Metro
Particulate matter
Air quality
Source apportionment
Issue DateNov-2018
PublisherElsevier
CitationEnvironmental Research 167: 314-328 (2018)
AbstractMillions of people use rail subway public transport around the world, despite the relatively high particulate matter (PM) concentrations in these underground environments, requiring the identification and quantification of the aerosol source contributions to improve the air quality. An extensive aerosol monitoring campaign was carried out in eleven subway stations in the Barcelona metro system, belonging to seven subway lines. PM2.5 samples were collected during the metro operating hours and chemically analysed to determine major and trace elements, inorganic ions, and total carbon. The chemical compositions of subway components such as brake pads, rail tracks and pantographs were also determined. The mean PM2.5 concentrations varied widely among stations, ranging from 26 µg m−3 to 86 µg m−3. Subway PM2.5 was mainly constituted by Fe2O3 (30–66%), followed by carbonaceous matter (18–37%) for the old stations, while for new stations equipped with Platform Screen Doors (PSD) these percentages go down to 21–44% and 15–30%, respectively. Both the absolute concentrations and the relative abundance of key species differed for each subway station, although with common patterns within a given subway line. This is a result of the different emission chemical profiles in different subway lines (using diverse types of brakes and/or pantographs). The co-emission of different sources poses a problem for their separation by receptor models. Nevertheless, receptor modelling (Positive Matrix Factorization) was applied resulting in ten sources, five of them subway-specific: RailWheel, RailWheel+Brake, Brake_A, Brake_B, Pb. The sum of their contributions accounted for 43–91% of bulk PM2.5 for the old stations and 21–52% for the stations with PSD. The decrease of the activity during the weekends resulted in a decrease (up to 56%) in the subway-specific sources contribution to the –already lower– bulk PM2.5 concentrations compared to weekdays. The health-related elements are mainly apportioned (> 60%) by subway sources. © 2018 The Authors
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.07.034
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/173022
DOI10.1016/j.envres.2018.07.034
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos

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