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Cadmium toxicity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown in hydroponics

AuthorsLópez-Millán, Ana Flor ; Sagardoy Calderón, Ruth ; Solanas, María ; Abadía Bayona, Anunciación ; Abadía Bayona, Javier
KeywordsCitrate synthase
Krebs cycle
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Issue DateMar-2009
CitationEnvironmental and Experimental Botany 65(2-3): 376-385 (2009)
AbstractThe effects of Cd have been investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics, using Cd concentrations of 10 and 100 μM. Cadmium treatment led to major effects in shoots and roots of tomato. Plant growth was reduced in both Cd treatments, leaves showed chlorosis symptoms when grown at 10 μM Cd and necrotic spots when grown at 100 μM Cd, and root browning was observed in both treatments. An increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, involved in anaplerotic fixation of CO2 into organic acids, was measured in root extracts of Cd-exposed plants. Also, significant increases in the activities of several enzymes from the Krebs cycle were measured in root extracts of tomato plants grown with Cd. In leaf extracts, significant increases in citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities were also found at 100 μM Cd, whereas fumarase activity decreased. These data suggest that at low Cd supply (10 μM) tomato plants accumulate Cd in roots and this mechanism may be associated to an increased activity in the PEPC–MDH–CS metabolic pathway involved in citric acid synthesis in roots. Also, at low Cd supply some symptoms associated with a moderate Fe deficiency could be observed, whereas at high Cd supply (100 μM) effects on growth overrule any nutrient interaction caused by excess Cd. Cadmium excess also caused alterations on photosynthetic rates, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as in nutrient homeostasis.
Description10 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables.-- Available online Nov 28, 2008.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2008.11.010
Appears in Collections:(EEAD) Artículos
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