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One-year calorie restriction impacts gut microbial composition but not its metabolic performance in obese adolescents

AuthorsRuiz, Alicia; Cerdó, Tomás; Jáuregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Marcos, Ascensión CSIC ORCID; Clemente, Alfonso; García, Federico; Margolles Barros, Abelardo CSIC ORCID; Ferrer, Manuel CSIC ORCID; Campoy, Cristina; Suárez, Antonio
Issue Date2017
PublisherSociety for Applied Microbiology
John Wiley & Sons
CitationEnvironmental Microbiology 19(4): 1536-1551 (2017)
AbstractRecent evidence has disclosed a connection between gut microbial glycosidase activity and adiposity in obese. Here, we measured microbial α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase activities and sorted fluorescently labeled β-galactosidase containing (βGAL) microorganisms in faecal samples of eight lean and thirteen obese adolescents that followed a controlled calorie restriction program during one year. β-galactosidase is a highly distributed functional trait, mainly expressed by members of Blautia, Bacteroides, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter and Propionibacterium. Only long-term calorie restriction induced clear changes in the microbiota of obese adolescents. Long-term calorie restriction induced significant shifts in total and βGAL gut microbiota, reducing the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio and enhancing the growth of beneficial microorganisms such as Bacteroides, Roseburia, Faecalibacterium and Clostridium XIVa. Moreover, the structure and composition of βGAL community in obese after long-term calorie restriction was highly similar to that of lean adolescents. However, despite this high compositional similarity, microbial metabolic performance was different, split in two metabolic states at a body mass index value of 25. Our study shows that calorie restriction is a strong environmental force reshaping gut microbiota though its metabolic performance is linked to host's adiposity, suggesting that functional redundancy and metabolic plasticity are fundamental properties of gut microbial ecosystem.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13713
e-issn: 1462-2920
issn: 1462-2912
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