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Relationships between IgE/IgG4 Epitopes, Structure and Function in Anisakis simplex Ani s 5, a Member of the SXP/RAL-2 Protein Family

AutorGarcía-Mayoral, M.F. ; Treviño, Miguel A. ; Pérez-Piñar, T.; Caballero, M.L.; Knaute, T.; Umpierrez, A.; Bruix, M. ; Rodríguez-Pérez, R.
Fecha de publicación2014
EditorPublic Library of Science
CitaciónPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8 (2014)
ResumenBackground:Anisakiasis is a re-emerging global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis larvae. This zoonotic disease is characterized by severe gastrointestinal and/or allergic symptoms which may misdiagnosed as appendicitis, gastric ulcer or other food allergies.The Anisakis allergen Ani s 5 is a protein belonging to the SXP/RAL-2 family; it is detected exclusively in nematodes. Previous studies showed that SXP/RAL-2 proteins are active antigens; however, their structure and function remain unknown.The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of Ani s 5 and its main IgE and IgG4 binding regions.Methodology/Principal Findings:The tertiary structure of recombinant Ani s 5 in solution was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mg2+, but not Ca2+, binding was determined by band shift using SDS-PAGE. IgE and IgG4 epitopes were elucidated by microarray immunoassay and SPOTs membranes using sera from nine Anisakis allergic patients.The tertiary structure of Ani s 5 is composed of six alpha helices (H), with a Calmodulin like fold. H3 is a long, central helix that organizes the structure, with H1 and H2 packing at its N-terminus and H4 and H5 packing at its C-terminus. The orientation of H6 is undefined. Regarding epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 immunoglobulins, the same eleven peptides derived from Ani s 5 were bound by both IgE and IgG4. Peptides 14 (L40-K59), 26 (A76-A95) and 35 (I103-D122) were recognized by three out of nine sera.Conclusions/Significance:This is the first reported 3D structure of an Anisakis allergen. Magnesium ion binding and structural resemblance to Calmodulin, suggest some putative functions for SXP/RAL-2 proteins. Furthermore, the IgE/IgG4 binding regions of Ani s 5 were identified as segments localized on its surface. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the interactions that occur between immunoglobulins and allergens and, in turn, facilitate the design of novel diagnostic tests and immunotherapeutic strategies. © 2014 García-Mayoral et al.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/167823
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002735
issn: 1935-2735
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