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Patterns of animal dispersal, vicariance and diversification in the Holarctic

AutorSanmartín, Isabel ; Enghoff, Henrik; Ronquist, Fredrik
Palabras claveHistorical biogeography
Fecha de publicación2001
EditorLinnean Society of London
CitaciónBiological Journal of the Linnean Society 73 : p. 345-390 (2001)
ResumenWe analysed patterns of animal dispersal, vicariance and diversification in the Holarctic based on complete phylogenies of 57 extant non-marine taxa, together comprising 770 species, documenting biogeographic events from the Late Mesozoic to the present. Four major areas, each corresponding to a historically persistent landmass, were used in the analyses: eastern Nearctic (EN), western Nearctic (WN), eastern Palaeoarctic (EP) and western Palaeoarctic (WP). Parsimony-based tree fitting showed that there is no significantly supported general area cladogram for the dataset. Yet, distributions are strongly phylogenetically conserved, as revealed by dispersalvicariance analysis (DIVA). DIVA-based permutation tests were used to pinpoint phylogenetically determined biogeographic patterns. Consistent with expectations, continental dispersals (WP-EP and WN-EN) are significantly more common than palaeocontinental dispersals (WN-EP and EN-WP), which in turn are more common than disjunct dispersals (EN-EP and WN-WP). There is significant dispersal asymmetry both within the Nearctic (WN+EN more common than EN+WN) and the Palaeoarctic (EP+WP more common than WP-tEP). Cross- Beringian faunal connections have traditionally been emphasized but are not more important than cross-Atlantic connections in our data set. To analyse changes over time, we sorted biogeographic events into four major time periods using fossil, biogeographic and molecular evidence combined with a 'branching clock. These analyses show that trans-Atlantic distributions (EN-WP) were common in the Early-Mid Tertiary (70-20 Myr), whereas trans- Beringian distributions (WN-EP) were rare in that period. Most EN-EP disjunctions date back to the Early Tertiary (7045 Myr), suggesting that they resulted from division of cross-Atlantic rather than cross-Beringian distributions. Diversification in WN and WP increased in the Quaternary (< 3 Myr), whereas in EP and EN it decreased from a maximum in the Early-Mid Tertiary.
Versión del editorhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2001.tb01368.x
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