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Experimental exposure of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis, L.) to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense: Histopathology, immune responses, and recovery

AutorGalimany, Eve ; Sunila, Inke; Hégaret, Hélène; Ramón, Montserrat ; Wikfors, Gary H.
Palabras claveAlexandrium fundyense
Harmful algal blooms
Mytilus edulis
Fecha de publicación23-feb-2008
CitaciónHarmful Algae 7(5): 702-711 (2008)
ResumenMussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to cultures of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense or the non-toxic alga Rhodomonas sp. to evaluate the effects of the harmful alga on the mussels and to study recovery after discontinuation of the A. fundyense exposure. Mussels were exposed for 9 days to the different algae and then all were fed Rhodomonas sp. for 6 more days. Samples of hemolymph for hemocyte analyses and tissues for histology were collected before the exposure and periodically during exposure and recovery periods.
Mussels filtered and ingested both microalgal cultures, producing fecal pellets containing degraded, partially degraded, and intact cells of both algae. Mussels exposed to A. fundyense had an inflammatory response consisting of degranulation and diapedesis of hemocytes into the alimentary canal and, as the exposure continued, hemocyte migration into the connective tissue between the gonadal follicles. Evidence of lipid peroxidation, similar to the detoxification pathway described for various xenobiotics, was found; insoluble lipofuchsin granules formed (ceroidosis), and hemocytes carried the granules to the alimentary canal, thus eliminating putative dinoflagellate toxins in feces. As the number of circulating hemocytes in A. fundyense-exposed mussels became depleted, mussels were immunocompromised, and pathological changes followed, i.e., increased prevalences of ceroidosis and trematodes after 9 days of exposure. Moreover, the total number of pathological changes increased from the beginning of the exposure until the last day (day 9). After 6 days of the exposure, mussels in one of the three tanks exposed to A. fundyense mass spawned; these mussels showed more severe effects of the toxic algae than non-spawning mussels exposed to A. fundyense.
No significant differences were found between the two treatments during the recovery period, indicating rapid homeostatic processes in tissues and circulating hemocytes.
Descripción10 pages, 8 figures, 1 table.-- Printed version published Aug 2008.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2008.02.006
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