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Polybromodiphenyl ether flame retardants in fish from lakes in European high mountains and Greenland

AuthorsVives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O. ; Lacorte Bruguera, Silvia ; Guillamón, Miriam; Barceló, Damià
KeywordsPolybromodiphenyl ethers
Liver fish
Muscle fish
European high mountains
Issue Date16-Mar-2004
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
CitationEnvironmental Science and Technology 38(8): 2338–2344 (2004)
AbstractIndividual polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in liver and muscle tissue of trout from 11 high mountain lakes in Europe and one in Greenland. Trouts in these lakes [brown trout (Salmo trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)] are important sentinel species because they are located in the top of the food chain and pollution can only reach these ecosystems by atmospheric transport. The major PBDE congeners were BDE 47 and BDE 99, followed by BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154, and BDE 28. These compounds were found in all the samples examined. Their average concentrations [110−1300 and 69−730 pg g-1 wet weight (ww) in liver and muscle or 2400−40 000 and 2900−41 000 pg g-1 lipid weight (lw), respectively] were in the lower range when compared with those of fish from other less remote locations. The highest levels of PBDEs in liver and muscle are found in Lochnagar, Scotland: 11 000 and 1200 pg g-1 ww, respectively (366 000 and 177 000 pg g-1 lw, respectively). Male specimens exhibited higher PBDE concentrations in liver than female. The concentra tions of most PBDEs in liver were correlated with fish age (p < 0.01) and, inversely, with condition factor (p < 0.01). Muscle PBDE concentrations did not correlate with age, and only some congeners showed significant positive correlations with condition factor (p < 0.05). The main differences between species were found in the accumulation of the more abundant PBDEs, brook trout showing the highest concentrations in muscle and the lowest in liver. No correlation between the occurrence of these compounds in high mountain fish and altitude, latitude, or temperature was observed. This fact and the lack of correlation between muscle concentrations and age suggest that the fluxes of PBDEs arriving at high mountain lakes are still not constant. In view of the present use of these compounds, they are probably increasing.
Description7 pages, 3 figures, 4 tables.-- PMID: 15116838 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Apr 14, 2004.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es030107x
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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