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The effects of organophosphorus insecticides and heavy metals on DNA damage and programmed cell death in two plant models

AutorCortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Risueño, María Carmen ; Testillano, P.S.
Palabras claveMalathion
Apoptotic-like-programmed cell death
Allium cepa
Vicia faba
Fecha de publicaciónsep-2018
CitaciónEnvironmental Pollution 240:77-86 (2018)
ResumenThe ubiquity of pollutants, such as agrochemicals and heavy metals, constitute a serious risk to human health. To evaluate the induction of DNA damage and programmed cell death (PCD), root cells of Allium cepa and Vicia faba were treated with two organophosphate insecticides (OI), fenthion and malathion, and with two heavy metal (HM) salts, nickel nitrate and potassium dichromate. An alkaline variant of the comet assay was performed to identify DNA breaks; the results showed comets in a dose-dependent manner, while higher concentrations induced clouds following exposure to OIs and HMs. Similarly, treatments with higher concentrations of OIs and HMs were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, and several structural characteristics of PCD were observed, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic vacuolization, nuclear shrinkage, condensation of the protoplast away from the cell wall, and nuclei fragmentation with apoptotic-like corpse formation. Abiotic stress also caused other features associated with PCD, such as an increase of active caspase-3-like protein, changes in the location of cytochrome C (Cyt C) toward the cytoplasm, and decreases in extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) expression. Genotoxicity results setting out an oxidative via of DNA damage and evidence the role of the high affinity of HM and OI by DNA molecule as underlying cause of genotoxic effect. The PCD features observed in root cells of A. cepa and V. faba suggest that PCD takes place through a process that involves ERK inactivation, culminating in Cyt C release and caspase-3-like activation. The sensitivity of both plant models to abiotic stress was clearly demonstrated, validating their role as good biosensors of DNA breakage and PCD induced by environmental stressors.
Descripción28 p.-4 fig.-3 tab.
Versión del editorhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.119
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