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Functional metagenomics of a biostimulated petroleum-contaminated soil reveals an extraordinary diversity of wxtradiol dioxygenases

AuthorsTerrón-González, Laura CSIC; Martín-Cabello, Guadalupe; Ferrer, Manuel CSIC ORCID; Santero, Eduardo CSIC ORCID
Issue Date2016
PublisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
CitationApplied and Environmental Microbiology 82(8): 2467-2478 (2016)
AbstractA metagenomic library of a petroleum-contaminated soil was constructed in a fosmid vector that allowed heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA. The library, consisting of 6.5 Gb of metagenomic DNA, was screened for extradiol dioxygenase (Edo) activity using catechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as the substrates. Fifty-eight independent clones encoding extradiol dioxygenase activity were identified. Forty-one different Edo-encoding genes were identified. The population of Edo genes was not dominated by a particular gene or by highly similar genes; rather, the genes had an even distribution and high diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genes could not be ascribed to previously defined subfamilies of Edos. Rather, the Edo genes led to the definition of 10 new subfamilies of type I Edos. Phylogenetic analysis of type II enzymes defined 7 families, 2 of which harbored the type II Edos that were found in this work. Particularly striking was the diversity found in family I.3 Edos; 15 out of the 17 sequences assigned to this family belonged to 7 newly defined subfamilies. A strong bias was found that depended on the substrate used for the screening: catechol mainly led to the detection of Edos belonging to the I.2 family, while 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl led to the detection of most other Edos. Members of the I.2 family showed a clear substrate preference for monocyclic substrates, while those from the I.3 family showed a broader substrate range and high activity toward 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. This metagenomic analysis has substantially increased our knowledge of the existing biodiversity of Edos.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1128/AEM.03811-15
issn: 0099-2240
e-issn: 1098-5336
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