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The effects of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in two contaminated Mediterranean soils

AuthorsWalker, David J.; Clemente Carrillo, Rafael CSIC ORCID; Roig, Asunción CSIC; Bernal Calderón, M. Pilar CSIC ORCID
KeywordsBeta maritima L
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern
Heavy metal bioavailability
Organic matter
Raphanus sativus L.
Issue DateApr-2003
CitationEnvironmental Pollution 122(2): 303-312 (2003)
AbstractTwo heavy metal contaminated calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Spain were studied. One soil, from the province of Murcia, was characterised by very high total levels of Pb (1572 mg kg−1) and Zn (2602 mg kg−1), whilst the second, from Valencia, had elevated concentrations of Cu (72 mg kg−1) and Pb (190 mg kg−1). The effects of two contrasting organic amendments (fresh manure and mature compost) and the chelate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on soil fractionation of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, their uptake by plants and plant growth were determined. For Murcia soil, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was grown first, followed by radish (Raphanus sativus L.). For Valencia soil, Beta maritima L. was followed by radish. Bioavailability of metals was expressed in terms of concentrations extractable with 0.1 M CaCl2 or diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In the Murcia soil, heavy metal bioavailability was decreased more greatly by manure than by the highly-humified compost. EDTA (2 mmol kg−1 soil) had only a limited effect on metal uptake by plants. The metal-solubilising effect of EDTA was shorter-lived in the less contaminated, more highly calcareous Valencia soil. When correlation coefficients were calculated for plant tissue and bioavailable metals, the clearest relationships were for Beta maritima and radish.
The effects of organic amendments on metal bioavailability were not always related to their degree of humification.
Description10 pages, 4 tables, 6 figures.
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