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Integrated management of parasitic weeds to reclaim pulses area in Mediterranean region

AutorRubiales, Diego
Fecha de publicaciónabr-2016
CitaciónInternational Conference on Pulses for Health, Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture in Drylands (2016)
ResumenLegume crops can be damaged by a number of parasitic weeds, being Orobanche crenata the most widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin and Middle East. O. foetida and O. aegyptiaca can also be of local importance. Dodders, particularly Cuscuta campestris can be damaging in some crops. Other parasitic weeds such as Striga gesnerioides and Alectra vogelii might be of importance on legume crops throughout semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The only effective way to cope with parasitic weeds is through an integrated approach. Preventing the movement of parasitic weed seeds into un-infested areas is a crucial component of control. Seedbank demise can be achieved by fumigation or solarization, however, this is not economically feasible in low-value and low input legume crops. A number of cultural practices, from delayed sowing, hand weeding, no-tillage, nitrogen fertilization, intercropping or rotations can contribute to seed bank demise. Other strategies such as suicidal germination, activation of systemic acquired resistance, biocontrol or target site herbicide resistance are being explored, but are not yet ready for direct application. The only methods currently available to farmers are the used of resistant cultivars and chemical control, although both have their limitations. The most economical and environmentally friendly control option is the use of resistant cultivars, however, breeding for resistance is a difficult task considering the scarce and complex nature of resistance in most crops. As a result, only cultivars with moderate levels of resistance are available to farmers. Available sources of resistance and their undelaying mechanisms and genetic basis on the various legume crops will be reviewed and compared with those available in other crops. Implications in resistance breeding will be critically discussed.
DescripciónTrabajo presentado en la International Conference on Pulses for Health, Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture in Drylands, celebrada en Marrakesh del 18 al 20 de abril de 2016.
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