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Broomrape/crops communications in the rhizosphere: targets for breeding

AuthorsFernández-Aparicio, Mónica ; Cimmino, Alessio ; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego
Issue DateMar-2015
CitationFirst International Congress on Strigolactones (2015)
AbstractSeveral broomrapes are economically damaging on temperate legume crops, being Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, O. minor and Phelipanche aegyptiaca the most important ones. A better understanding the host/parasite interaction will provide new targets for management and breeding. Here we will concentrate in broomrape seed germination, which might be stimulated or inhibited by chemicals released to the rhizosphere by the plant roots. A number of strigolactones may stimulate germination in a species-specific manner, playing a major role in host specificity. Faba bean and pea accessions that do not induce broomrape seed germination are now available. In pea, there is a range of strigolactone deficient mutants that could be exploited in pea breeding. In faba bean, a number of well adapted breeding lines have been produced now whose resistance is based in low broomrape seed stimulation. This is operative against O. crenata, O. foetida and P. aegyptiaca and is associated with low strigolactone exudation. In addition to these, a number of metabolites different from strigolactones (i.e. peagol, peagoldione, peapolyphenols, soyasapogenol B, trans-22-dehydrocampesterol) have been indentified in pea and common vetch root exudates showing a species-specific stimulation of Orobanche seed germination. These metabolites could be exploited in suicidal germination control strategies by synthesizing and directly applying them to the field. In addition, breeding for high root exudation levels of germination stimulants could identify better candidates for trap crops to be used in a suicidal germination control strategy. For instance, pea is only infected by O. crenata but pea root exudates stimulate germination of P. aegyptiaca, O. foetida and O. minor to which pea is resistant. But communication with broomrape in the rhizosphere does not restrict to the crop plant. Accompanying crops or weeds could also play a relevant role. It has recently been shown that intercrops of temperate grain legumes with a number of crops such as cereals, fenugreek or berseem clover can reduce O. crenata infection being allelopathy a major component for the reduction. Several metabolites with inhibitory effect have been identified in the root exudates of various plants, such as trigoxazonane from fenugreek, ryecyanatines and ryecarbonitrilines from rye that might be responsible for inhibition of O. crenata seed germination. Therefore, breeding for allelopathic potential is another potential target for breeding.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en el First International Congress on Strigolactones, celebrado en Wageningen (Holanda) del 1 al 6 de marzo de 2015.
Appears in Collections:(IAS) Comunicaciones congresos
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