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Unveilling the potential of Portuguese common bean varieties to genetic improvement: rust and fusarium wilt resistance

AuthorsLeitao, Susana T.; Bicho, C.; Rubiales, Diego ; Vaz Patto, María Carlota
Issue DateMay-2015
CitationV Meeting Asociación Española de Leguminosas (2015)
AbstractCommon bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the worldwide most important food legume, being an excellent source of proteins, fiber, minerals (iron and zinc) and vitamins. In addition to its health benefits it is an environmentally friendly resource because of the capability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen as a result of the endosymbiotic association with the soil bacteria Rhizobium. However, due yield instability caused by biotic and abiotic stresses, this crop is underused in Europe. Therefore, it is essential to genetically improve common bean varieties in order to attain more stable, reliable and sustainable local production. A collection of 130 Portuguese common bean landraces, resulting from more than five centuries of adaptation and mass selection by farmers, was screened for resistance to rust and fusarium wilt under controlled conditions. The diseases caused by these two very different fungi (an airborne and a soilborne, respectively) are among the most important constraints to the bean production and quality being intimately related to yield loss. Rust infection type and disease severity were analyzed 12 days after inoculation using a 0-4 scale (Stakman et al., 1962). The most frequent infection type observed was 4, indicative of a compatible plant-pathogen interaction, with no macroscopically visible hypersensitivity. Disease severity values varied greatly, from <1 to 40 %. Sixteen landraces showed low infection types (0, 1 or 2), indicative of incompatible interaction. Forty landraces presented chlorotic halos surrounding the rust pustules on infected leaves. For the fusarium evaluation, symptoms were assessed every 3 days, from 7th to 30th days after inoculation, with ratings value based on a disease index scale ranging from 1 (healthy plant) to 5 (dead plant) (Rispail & Rubiales, 2014). A week after the inoculation, some landraces presented disease symptoms in the primary leaves, with curled yellow margins that progressed fast to a stage where whole leaves became wilted and dry. Two weeks after the infection, all plants from 5 land -races were already dead. On the other hand, 10 landraces showed plants with resistance to fusarium infection that presented no symptoms or only low levels of yellowing or discoloration on the leaves margins. These interesting sources of resistance may now be incorporated in pre-breeding materials aiming the development of attractive new varieties and will be study in detail to understand the depicted resistance mechanisms.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en la V Meeting Asociación Española de Leguminosas, AEL (Eucarpia International Symposium on Protein Crops), celebrada en Pontevedra del 4 al 7 de mayo de 2015.
Appears in Collections:(IAS) Comunicaciones congresos
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