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Interspecific interactions drive cultural co-evolution and acoustic convergence in syntopic species

AutorLaiolo, Paola
Palabras claveAggressiveness
Biotic interactions
Geographical mosaic of co-evolution
Interference competition
Social learning
Fecha de publicación19-ene-2012
CitaciónJournal of Animal Ecology 81(3): 594-604 (2012)
ResumenSummary 1. Antagonistic interactions have been favourite subjects of studies on species co-evolution, because coexistence among competing species often results in quantifiable character displacement. A common output for competitive interactions is trait divergence, although the opposite phenomenon, convergence, has been proposed to evolve in some instances, for example in the communication behaviour of species that maintain mutually exclusive territories. 2. I use here experimental and observational evidence to study how species interactions drive heterospecific signal convergence and analyse how convergence feeds back to the interaction itself, in the form of aggressive behaviour. I recorded the learned territorial signals of two non-hybridizing larks, Galerida cristata and G. theklae, and used allopatric populations as controls for evaluating acoustic convergence in syntopy. Acoustic variation was analysed with respect to social conditions controlling for other potential agents of natural selection, habitat and climate.
3. Interspecific convergence of Galerida calls peaked in syntopy. Although call acoustic structure was affected by climate and habitat, it matched gradients of density and proximity to congeners even at small local scales. The process of cultural transmission, in which individuals may acquire components of behaviour by copying neighbours, enhances the correlation between call acoustics and the local social milieu. 4. Territories were defended against both species, but playback stimuli of convergent congener calls elicited a stronger aggressive reaction than congener calls from allopatric locations. 5. This study shows that learned behaviours may co-evolve as a consequence of antagonistic interactions, determining reciprocal cultural evolution or cultural co-evolution. As for (biological) co-evolution, the distribution of competing species influences whether a particular area becomes a syntopic environment in which convergence is occurring, or an allopatric environment lacking interactions and reciprocal change. Because of their plastic nature, cultural coadaptations may rapidly shift in response to fluctuating social selection, thus propelling dynamic interactions and fine adjustments to the local environment.
DescripciónThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Laiolo, P. (2012), Interspecific interactions drive cultural co-evolution and acoustic convergence in syntopic species. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81: 594–604, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01946.x. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."
Versión del editorhttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2011.01946.x
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