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Título

Caracterización no-destructiva de joyas arqueológicas de oro mediante Micro Fluorescencia de Rayos X

Otros títulosNon-destructive characterization of archaeological gold jewels by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence
AutorScrivano, S.
DirectorRespaldiza, M. A. ; Ortega-Feliú, I. ; Gómez-Tubío, B.
Fecha de publicación2015
EditorUniversidad de Sevilla
Resumen[EN]: This manuscript collects the results obtained in the investigation carried out during the PhD studies about the non-destructive characterization of archaeological gold jewelry, developed mainly within the investigation project: Riqueza, valor y precio: el metal como referente en las sociedades mediterraneas (s. V a.C. - I d.C.), supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Gold and gold artifacts are excellent objects for unraveling the secret of ancient times and its society from their ambivalent character as condensed wealth and that basis of power, but also as transcendental symbols of eternal life and beauty, also considering that the work of gold was one of the first metallurgical techniques performed by man. This work arises in response to the need to understand and study the production techniques of pre-romans jewelries, starting from the systematic characterization of the different soldering methods used in the antiquity to produce these objects. To reach this aim, a portable device of X-rays fluorescence was designed and developed. This system allows to analyze in situ micrometric details of the archaeological jewelry by means of a micro-beam, for example, the soldering area of antiquity jewelries. The results obtained have demonstrated that using a focalization optics device, provides a high flux density of X-rays in the sample and a lateral resolution of 30 µm. The sensibility and the detection limits of this device allow to analyze the majority, minority and trace elements. In a second stage, before moving to the archaeological jewelry studies, models of the production processes used in the antiquity, by means of the experimental archaeology were performed. These models reproduce the three soldering/welding methods, reported by an ancient recipe: solid state diffusion bonding with copper salt, brazing and autogenous welding. The three techniques have been studied
by different methods (SEM-EDS, metallography, micro-XRF and micro-PIXE). The results obtained show that the solid state diffusion bonding with copper salt presents a crystal hexagonal structure without phase changes in the joining point, where only a variation in the dimensions of the crystal grains is observed. At the compositional level, this kind of alloy is characterized by an increase in the copper composition and a small decrease of gold content. The brazing shows a dendritic-porous structure, due to the superposition of the soldering alloy on the crystal structure of the sheet alloy. In the compositional analysis of the brazing an increment of the silver and copper concentration and simultaneous decrease of gold concentration is observed. Finally, in the autogenous welding no changes in micro-structural and compositional level are observed. The results obtained were utilized, in the third stage of this work, to study and characterize the ancient jewelry using the micro-XRF system. Several objects representative of two coetaneous cultures from the Mediterranean Basin, Tartesic and Etruscan, were analyzed. Tartesic were a civilization located in the South-West of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Bronze Age to the 4th century B.C. The studied objects are a group of pieces belonging to the El Carambolo treasure, which is the most representative example of Tartesic jewelry. The results obtained have showed a good homogeneity in the alloys composition and the use of autogenous welding and brazing as joining method. Besides, some similarities and differences in the production processes have been observed, which supports the hypothesis that these objects were produced in the same workshop, where there was a collaboration between different goldsmiths using different techniques. As example of Etruscan jewelry, a group of objects belonging to the Florence Archaeological Museum (Italy), dated from 7th to 3dh B.C. century and coming from several zones of the Center-North of Italy have been studied. The analyses have shown a great compositional variability, where the majorities are the alloys with a silver concentration higher than 15% and a copper concentration around 2.5%. The three soldering methods have been found, where the copper diffusion bonding is most common in the objects of all periods.
[ES]: El presente trabajo de tesis doctoral ha sido desarrollado principalmente dentro del proyecto de investigación Riqueza, valor y precio: el metal como referente en las sociedades mediterráneas (s. V a.C. - I d.C.); proyecto financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, de carácter multidisciplinar donde las técnicas de análisis no destructivo son aplicados al Patrimonio Cultural. Este proyecto, junto con otros financiados en este campo, se basa en unir dos áreas de conocimientos aparentemente distantes, como son la científica y la humanística, para intentar solventar interrogantes todavía abiertos en el ámbito del estudio de los objetos del Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural. En el estudio de los Bienes Culturales surgen muy a menudo preguntas que no pueden ser contestadas sin la ayuda de disciplinas que involucren el análisis químico-físico de los materiales, como por ejemplo cuestiones acerca del tipo de material que constituye un objeto, su procedencia o su edad. Por este motivo a partir del siglo XX se empezaron a aplicar con más frecuencia los análisis científicos a las obras de arte dando así vida a una nueva disciplina, la arqueometría. La palabra arqueometría (del griego archáios=antiguo y métron=medida) significa literalmente medidas de lo que es antiguo e identifica, en un sentido más amplio, una rama de investigación que utiliza las ciencias para estudiar restos, artefactos o sitios de interés histórico o arqueológico. En los últimos años, la aplicación de estas metodologías en el estudio de antigüedades ha permitido un aprendizaje sin precedentes. Conocer la estructura de los materiales y de los procesos químico-físicos relacionados con la creación de un objeto permite revelar el conocimiento tecnológico de los artesanos de la época, además de proporcionar informaciones valiosas para la conservación, restauración y autenticación de los materiales que componen una obra de arte. Los primeros trabajos en este sector empezaron al principio de los años 80 del siglo pasado, utilizando entre otras las técnicas nucleares basadas en haces de iones (conocidas como técnicas IBA del inglés Ion Beam Analysis) empleando principalmente los aceleradores de partículas.
DescripciónTesis doctoral presentada por Simona Scrivano dentro del Programa de Doctorado Física Nuclear Aplicada, en el Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear de la Universidad de Sevilla.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/159148
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