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Recombination between clonal lineages of the asexual fungus Verticillium dahliae detected by genotyping by sequencing

AuthorsMilgroom, M. G.; Jiménez-Gasco, M. Mar ; Olivares-García, Concepción; Drott, M. T.; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.
Issue DateOct-2014
CitationXVII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Fitopatología (2014)
AbstractRecombination purges deleterious mutations and prevents the erosion of fitness caused by Muller\’s ratchet in asexual species. Therefore, asexual species are thought to be recent in origin, or they experience some sexual reproduction. Verticillium dahliae is a plant-pathogenic, ascomycete fungus with no known sexual stage and a population structure that is highly clonal. However, previously described discrepancies in phylogenetic relationships among clonal lineages may be simpler to explain by recombination than mutation. We addressed whether clonal lineages of V. dahliae arose by recombination. Genotyping by sequencing was performed on 141 V. dahliae isolates from diverse geographic and host origins, resulting in 26,748 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found a strongly clonal population structure with the same lineages as described previously by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and molecular markers. We detected 443 unique recombination events, evenly distributed throughout the genome. Recombination was widespread between clonal lineages, with relatively few recombinant haplotypes within clonal lineages. Two isolates representing lineage 6 (VCG6) and one isolate in lineage 2A (VCG2A) were recombinants; these isolates were in mating type MAT1-1, whereas all other isolates were in mating type MAT1-2. We found homologs of eight of 12 genes known to function in meiosis in other fungi in the V. dahliae genome, all with conserved or partially conserved protein domains. The extent of recombination suggests that clonal lineages arose by recombination, even though the current population structure is markedly clonal. Molecular signs of sex in V. dahliae (mating-type genes and meiosis-related genes) are consistent with the potential for sexual reproduction and for new clonal lineages to arise by recombination, thereby increasing genotypic diversity. We speculate that the current clonal population structure, despite the sexual origin of lineages, has arisen, in part, as a consequence of agriculture and selection for adaptation to agricultural cropping systems.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado en el XVII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Fitopatología, celebrado en Lleida del 7 al 10 de octubre de 2014.
Appears in Collections:(IAS) Comunicaciones congresos
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