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Title

Climate forcing of an emerging pathogenic fungus across a montane multi-host community

AuthorsClare, F.C.; Halder, J.B.; Daniel, O.; Bielby, J.; Semenov, M.A.; Jombart, T.; Loyau, A.; Schmeller, D.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Rowcliffe, M.; Garner, T.W.J.; Bosch, Jaime ; Fisher, M.C.
KeywordsMulti
Host × pathogen × environment interaction
Mountain ecosystems
Epidemiology
host communities
Chytridiomycosis
Climate change
Issue Date24-Oct-2016
PublisherRoyal Society (Great Britain)
CitationPhilosophical Transactions - B - Biological Sciences 371: 20150454 (2016)
AbstractChanges in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection. We found a robust temporal association between the timing of the spring thaw and Bd infection in two host species, where we show that an early onset of spring forced high prevalences of infection. A third highly susceptible species (the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans) maintained a high prevalence of infection independent of time of spring thaw. Our data show that perennially overwintering midwife toad larvae may act as a year-round reservoir of infection with variation in time of spring thaw determining the extent to which infection spills over into sympatric species. We used future temperature projections based on global climate models to demonstrate that the timing of spring thaw in this region will advance markedly by the 2050s, indicating that climate change will further force the severity of infection. Our findings on the effect of annual variability on multi-host infection dynamics show that the community-level impact of fungal infectious disease on biodiversity will need to be re-evaluated in the face of climate change.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/158762
Identifiersdoi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0454
issn: 1471-2970
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