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Metabolite profiling of carbamazepine and ibuprofen in Solea senegalensis bile using high-resolution mass spectrometry

AuthorsAceña, Jaume CSIC; Pérez Solsona, Sandra CSIC ORCID ; Eichhorn, Peter; Solé, Montserrat CSIC ORCID ; Barceló, Damià CSIC ORCID
KeywordsFish metabolites
High-resolution mass spectrometry
Issue DateJul-2017
CitationAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409(23): 5441-5450 (2017)
AbstractThe widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on exposed wildlife. Very little is currently known on exposure levels and clearance mechanisms of drugs in marine fish. Within this context, our research was focused on the identification of main metabolic reactions, generated metabolites, and caused effects after exposure of fish to carbamazepine (CBZ) and ibuprofen (IBU). To this end, juveniles of Solea senegalensis acclimated to two temperature regimes of 15 and 20 °C for 60 days received a single intraperitoneal dose of these drugs. A control group was administered the vehicle (sunflower oil). Bile samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry on a Q Exactive (Orbitrap) system, allowing to propose plausible identities for 11 metabolites of CBZ and 13 metabolites of IBU in fish bile. In case of CBZ metabolites originated from aromatic and benzylic hydroxylation, epoxidation, and ensuing O-glucuronidation, O-methylation of a catechol-like metabolite was also postulated. Ibuprofen, in turn, formed multiple hydroxyl metabolites, O-glucuronides, and (hydroxyl)-acyl glucuronides, in addition to several taurine conjugates. Enzymatic responses after drug exposures revealed a water temperature-dependent induction of microsomal carboxylesterases. The metabolite profiling in fish bile provides an important tool for pharmaceutical exposure assessment
Description10 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, supplementary material https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0467-7
Publisher version (URL)https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0467-7
Identifiersdoi: 10.1007/s00216-017-0467-7
issn: 1618-2642
e-issn: 1618-2650
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