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Three-dimensional morphometrics of thoracic vertebrae in Neandertals and the fossil evidence from El Sidrón (Asturias, Northern Spain)

AutorBastir, Markus ; García Martínez, Daniel; Ríos, Luis; Higuero, Antonio; Barash, Alon; Martelli, Sandra; García-Tabernero, Antonio ; Estalrrich, Almudena ; Huguet, Rosa ; Rasilla, Marco de la; Rosas, Antonio
Palabras claveNeandertals
Thoracic spine
Axial skeleton
Geometric morphometrics
Respiratory apparatus
Fecha de publicaciónjul-2017
CitaciónJournal of Human Evolution 108: 47-61 (2017)
ResumenWell preserved thoracic vertebrae of Neandertals are rare. However, such fossils are im portant as t heir three-dimensio nal (3D) spatial con ¿ guration can contr ibute to the under standing of the size and shape of the thoracic spine and the entire thorax. This is be cause the verteb ral body and t ransverse processes provid e the articulati on and attachme nt si tes for the ribs . Dorsal ori entation of the transverse processes relative to the vertebral body also rotates the attache d ribs in a way that could affe ct thorax wi dth. Previous research indicates pos sible evide nce for greater dorsal orien tation of the transverse processes and small vertebral body heig hts in Neandertals, but their 3D verteb ral str ucture has not yet be en addressed. Here we present 15 new vertebral remains from the El Si dr on Neandertals (Ast urias, Northern Spain ) and used 3D geometric morph ometri cs to address the above issues by comp aring two par ticularly well preserved El Sidr on remains (SD-1619, SD-16 41) with thoracic vertebrae from ot her Neandertals and a sa mple of anatomically mod ern human s. Centroid size s of El Si dron vertebrae are withi n the human range. Neandertals have larger T1 and probably also T2. The El Sidron vertebrae are similar in 3D shap e to those of other Neandertals, wh ich differ from Homo sapien s par ticularly in central-lower regions (T6 e T10) of the thoracic spine. Differences in clude more dorsal ly and cranially oriented t ransverse pro-cesse s, less cau dally ori ented spino us processes, and vertebral bodies that are anteroposter iorly and craniocaudally short. The results ¿ t wit h current reconstruc tions of Neandertal t horax morphology
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.008
issn: 0047-2484
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