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Title

Infant feeding and risk of developing celiac disease: a systematic review

AuthorsSilano, Marco; Agostoni, Carlo; Sanz Herranz, Yolanda ; Guandalini, Stefano
KeywordsCeliac disease
Breastfeeding
Gluten
Children
Issue Date1-Jan-2016
PublisherBMJ Publishing Group
CitationBMJ Open 6: e009163 (2016)
AbstractObjective To review the evidence for the association of breast feeding, breastfeeding duration or the timing of gluten introduction and the later development of celiac disease (CD). Design Systematic review.Methods We searched MEDLINE, via PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, for studies published up to 31 August 2015 investigating the association of breastfeeding duration, breast feeding at the moment of gluten introduction or the timing of gluten introduction and the later development of CD. Prospective studies had to enrol infants/children at high risk of CD. For retrospective studies, participants had to be children or adults with CD. The paper quality was assessed by means of a GRADE score and the bias risk was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (for observational cohort studies) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool (for randomised trials). Results Out of 149 retrieved papers, 48 were considered in depth and 16 were included in this review (9 were prospective and 2 were interventional). We found that neither duration of breastfeeding nor breastfeeding at time of gluten introduction nor the delayed introduction of gluten during weaning were effective in preventing later development of CD. Conclusions Currently, there is no evidence on the optimal breastfeeding duration or the effects of avoiding early (<4 months of age) or late (≥6 or even at 12 months) gluten introduction in children at risk of CD. Accordingly, no specific general recommendations about gluten introduction or optimal breastfeeding duration can be presently provided on evidence-based criteria in order to prevent CD.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009163
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/157952
DOI10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009163
E-ISSN2044-6055
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