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Central vascular disease and exacerbated pathology in a mixed model of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease

AuthorsRamos-Rodriguez, Juan Jose; Jiménez-Palomares, Margarita; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso Maria; Cózar-Castellano, Irene ; Garcia-Alloza, Monica
Alzheimer's disease
Type 2 diabetes
Vascular dementia
Issue Date2015
CitationPsychoneuroendocrinology 62: 69-79 (2015)
AbstractAging remains the main risk factor to suffer Alzheimer's disease (AD), though epidemiological studies also support that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major contributor. In order to explore the close relationship between both pathologies we have developed an animal model presenting both AD and T2D, by crossing APP/PS1 mice (AD model) with db/db mice (T2D model). We traced metabolic and cognitive evolution before T2D or AD pathology is present (4 weeks of age), when T2D has debuted but no senile plaques are present (14 weeks of age) and when both pathologies are well established (26 weeks of age). APP/PS1xdb/db mice showed an age-dependent synergistic effect between T2D and AD. Significant brain atrophy and tau pathology were detected in the cortex by 14 weeks, that spread to the hippocampus by 26 weeks of age. Severe cognitive impairment was also detected as soon as at 14 weeks of age. Interestingly, in APP/PS1xdb/db mice we observed a shift in Aβ soluble/insoluble levels, and whereas more toxic soluble species were favoured, senile plaques (SP) were reduced. An overall increase of microglia activation was observed in APP/PS1xdb/db mice. We also found exacerbated hemorrhagic burden in APP/PS1xdbd/db mice, suggesting that blood brain barrier alterations may be responsible for the early pathological features observed. Moreover, metabolic parameters can predict many of these alterations, supporting a role for T2D in AD pathology. This new model provides a relevant tool to further explore the relationship between T2D, AD and vascular implications, offering the possibility to assess therapeutic approaches, that by improving T2D metabolic control could delay or prevent AD pathology.
Descriptionet al.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.07.606
e-issn: 1873-3360
issn: 0306-4530
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