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Bioavailability-related effects of dissolved organic matter on biodegradation of PAHs

AutorOrtega Calvo, J. J. ; Jiménez Sánchez, Celia ; Posada Baquero, Rosa ; García Fernández, José Luis ; Cantos, Manuel
Fecha de publicación22-may-2016
EditorSociety of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
CitaciónSETAC Europe 26th Annual Meeting 22-26 May 2016, Nantes, France
ResumenIn environmental sciences, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is usually differentiated from particulate organic matter as the size fraction of organic matter smaller than 0.45 µm. This fraction typically consists of a multitude of structurally different compounds, all typically present at low concentrations, although it can differ significantly in quality (or biodegradability) and quantity in time and space. The environmental fate of organic pollutants, such as PAHs, can be affected by DOM via increased apparent solubility, desorption, transport and biodegradation. In our group, we have specifically addressed the influences of DOM quality on bioavailability-related phenomena: chemotaxis, attachment and solubilisation. We used, for our studies, different experimental models to assess the bioavailability of PAHs for biodegradation, and these included Tenax extraction, dual 14C/residue analysis of microcosm samples, dynamic passive dosing with PDMS, biphasic NAPL/water systems, and column systems. Different model DOM sources, of dissimilar quality but all with potential use in bioremediation were used, and included humic acids, root exudates, biosurfactants and organic fertilizers. We found that biodegradation of poorly bioavailable PAHs was enhanced by (bio)surfactants (Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:10869-10877, 2014), the targeted fertilization of free-oil phases or NAPLs (Environ. Sci. Technol. 45:1074-1081, 2011), by modulating the deposition and tactic motility of microbial degraders in porous media (Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:6790-6797, 2012), and by root exudates (Soil Biol. Biochem. 57:830-840, 2013; Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:4498–4505, 2015). However, a negative influence on biodegradation of PAHs by humic acids (Environ. Pollut. 184:435-442, 2014) and biosurfactants (Environ. Pollut. 205:378-384, 2015) was found if they prevented cell attachment to the PAH-loaded PDMS sources. These influences of DOM on bioavailability are relevant not only for innovation efforts in bioremediation but they have also connections with the determination of bioavailability of organic chemicals in retrospective and prospective risk assessment and regulation (Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:10255-10264, 2015
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