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Cryptic lineage divergence in marine environments: genetic differentiation at multiple spatial and temporal scales in the widespread intertidal goby Gobiosoma bosc

AuthorsMilá, Borja ; Van Tassell, James L.; Calderón, Jatziri A.; Rüber, Lukas; Zardoya, Rafael
KeywordsGenetic structure
Stabilizing selection
Genetic diversity
Issue DateJul-2017
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
CitationEcology and Evolution 7(14): 5514-5523 (2017)
AbstractThe adaptive radiation of the seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae: Gobiosomatini) represents a classic example of how ecological specialization and larval retention can drive speciation through local adaptation. However, geographically widespread and phenotypically uniform species also do occur within Gobiosomatini. This lack of phenotypic variation across large geographic areas could be due to recent colonization, widespread gene flow, or stabilizing selection acting across environmental gradients. We use a phylogeographic approach to test these alternative hypotheses in the naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a widespread and phenotypically invariable intertidal fish found along the Atlantic Coast of North America. Using DNA sequence from 218 individuals sampled at 15 localities, we document marked intraspecific genetic structure in mitochondrial and nuclear genes at three main geographic scales: (i) between Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coast, (ii) between the west coast of the Florida peninsula and adjacent Gulf of Mexico across the Apalachicola Bay, and (iii) at local scales of a few hundred kilometers. Clades on either side of Florida diverged about 8 million years ago, whereas some populations along the East Cost show divergent phylogroups that have differentiated within the last 200,000 years. The absence of noticeable phenotypic or ecological differentiation among lineages suggests the role of stabilizing selection on ancestral phenotypes, together with isolation in allopatry due to reduced dispersal and restricted gene flow, as the most likely explanation for their divergence. Haplotype phylogenies and spatial patterns of genetic diversity reveal frequent population bottlenecks followed by rapid population growth, particularly along the Gulf of Mexico. The magnitude of the genetic divergence among intraspecific lineages suggests the existence of cryptic species within Gobiosoma and indicates that modes of speciation can vary among lineages within Gobiidae.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1002/ece3.3161
issn: 2045-7758
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