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Contribution of Rosellinia necatrix toxins to avocado white root rot

AuthorsArjona Girona, Isabel ; Ariza, M. T.; López Herrera, Carlos
Persea americana
Plant pathogen
Soil-borne fungus
Issue DateMay-2017
CitationEuropean Journal of Plant Pathology 148(1): 109–117 (2017)
AbstractBy transversely cutting infected avocado plant stems and using PCR techniques on avocado leaves, two experiments were carried out to determine whether Rosellinia necatrix can invade avocado vascular tissues. We were unable to detect the pathogen in either stems or leaves in either experiment, so we concluded that R. necatrix does not invade the vascular system of the plant. Additionally, the toxins produced by the pathogen were also studied to determine whether such toxins could contribute to the wilting and death of avocado plants infected by R. necatrix, having an effect on avocado leaves, where they can hinder the photosynthetic process. First, we isolated and identified the toxins cytochalasin E and rosnecatrone from filtrates of six R. necatrix isolates. Second, we tried to detect cytochalasin E in sap and leaves from infected avocado plants, and it was not detected at the minimum level of 50 μg/kg in leaves or 25 μg/kg on sap. Finally, we observed changes in fluorescence emitted by the avocado leaf surface (to detect photosynthetic efficiency) after inoculating avocado plants with this toxin. Fluorescence was higher in the leaves of plants immersed in toxin solution after 4 and 8 days, but not after longer periods of time. In this work, we demonstrated that although R. necatrix is not a fungus that invades the vascular system, its toxins are probably involved in the wilting and death of infected avocado plants, decreasing the efficiency of photosynthesis.
Publisher version (URL)http://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-016-1074-8
Appears in Collections:(IAS) Artículos
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