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Phylogenomics reveals polyphyly of haploscleromorph clades and provides insight into the early evolution of sponges

AutorTorruella, Guifré ; Mallo, Diego; Pérez-Porro, Alicia R.; Leys, Sally P.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki ; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana
Fecha de publicaciónnov-2013
CitaciónNinth World Sponge Conference (2013)
ResumenWith the recent focus on the monophyly of sponges, the internal relationships between the four classes of sponges have attracted less attention. For the last two decades sponges have been divided into two groups based on either the nature of their skeleton, Calcarea + Silicea (hexactinellids + demosponges including homoscleromorphs), or based on the syncytial organization of the hexactinellids, Symplasma (hexactinellids) + Cellularia (sponges with cellular organization: Calcarea + demosponges + homoscleromorphs). More recently Homoscleromorpha was erected as the fourth class of sponges, but its phylogenetic affiliations with other sponge groups remain contentious, in part because the intra-class relationships of sponges have been addressed using mostly singl e gene phylogenies or combinations of few genes. Here, a phylogenomic approach using protein-encoding genes has been applied to examine deep relationships within sponges. This analysis included 22 sponges (twelve of them sequenced de novo with Illumina RNA seq technology) resulting in two different matrices based on different orthologous gene sets, one including 78 genes (SCPD; Torruella et al., 2012) and the other containing 128 genes (P127; Philippe et al., 2009). The SCPD matrix provided higher resolution for major sponge clades, although calcareous sponges suffered from systematic artifacts when using the P127 matrix. The analysis of the SCPD matrix showed a monophyletic Porifera with a deep split between a homoscleromorph + calcareous sponge clade and a hexactinellid + demosponge clade. Within demosponges, the clades G1 to G4 were recovered. A long suspected placement of Spongillidae within the G4 group instead of within G3 (Haploscleromorpha) is supported by our analyses. Our results provide insight into the early evolution of sponges and one of our data sets supports monophyly of Porifera.
DescripciónTrabajo presentado en el Ninth World Sponge Conference, celebrado en Fremantle (Australia) del 4 al 8 de noviembre de 2013
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