English   español  
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/156864
Share/Impact:
Statistics
logo share SHARE logo core CORE   Add this article to your Mendeley library MendeleyBASE

Visualizar otros formatos: MARC | Dublin Core | RDF | ORE | MODS | METS | DIDL
Exportar a otros formatos:

Title

Rural-Urban Differences in Escape Behavior of European Birds across a Latitudinal Gradient

AuthorsSamia, Diogo S.M.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Díaz. Mario; Grim, Tomas; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, J.; Tätte, K.; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, P.; Møller, Anders P.
KeywordsAlert-distance
Antipreator behavior
Buffer distance
Flight initiation distance
Phi index
Pre-detection distance
Rural-urban difference
Urbanization
Issue Date2017
PublisherFrontiers Media
CitationFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 5:66 (2017)
AbstractBehavioral adjustment is a key factor that facilitates species’ coexistence with humans in a rapidly urbanizing world. Because urban animals often experience reduced predation risk compared to their rural counterparts, and because escape behavior is energetically costly, we expect that urban environments will select for increased tolerance to humans. Many studies have supported this expectation by demonstrating that urban birds have reduced flight initiation distance (FID = predator-prey distance when escape by the prey begins) than rural birds. Here, we advanced this approach and, for the first time, assessed how 32 species of birds, found in 92 paired urban-rural populations, along a 3,900 km latitudinal gradient across Europe, changed their predation risk assessment and escape strategy as a function of living in urban areas. We found that urban birds took longer than rural birds to be alerted to human approaches, and urban birds tolerated closer human approach than rural birds. While both rural and urban populations took longer to become aware of an approaching human as latitude increased, this behavioral change with latitude is more intense in urban birds (for a given unit of latitude, urban birds increased their pre-detection distance more than rural birds). We also found that as mean alert distance was shorter, urban birds escaped more quickly from approaching humans, but there was no such a relationship in rural populations. Although, both rural and urban populations tended to escape more quickly as latitude increased, urban birds delayed their escape more at low latitudes when compared with rural birds. These results suggest that urban birds in Europe live under lower predation risk than their rural counterparts. Furthermore, the patterns found in our study indicate that birds prioritize the reduction of on-going monitoring costs when predation risk is low. We conclude that splitting escape variables into constituent components may provide additional and complementary information on the underlying causes of escape. This new approach is essential for understanding, predicting, and managing wildlife in a rapidly urbanizing world.
Publisher version (URL)htpp://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00066
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/156864
DOI10.3389/fevo.2017.00066
Appears in Collections:(MNCN) Artículos
(EBD) Artículos
Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
fevo-05-00066.pdf2,09 MBAdobe PDFThumbnail
View/Open
Show full item record
Review this work
 

Related articles:


WARNING: Items in Digital.CSIC are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.