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Title

Tricin-lignins: occurrence and quantitation of tricin in relation to phylogeny

AuthorsLan, Wu; Rencoret, Jorge ; Lu, Fachuang; Karlen, S.D.; Smith, Bronwen G. S.; Harris, Philip J.; Río Andrade, José Carlos del ; Ralph, John
KeywordsThioacidolysis
Acidolysis
Derivatization followed by reductive cleavage
Poaceae
Tricin-d6
Stable isotopically labeled internal standard
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
Multiple reaction monitoring
Issue Date30-Dec-2016
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
CitationPlant Journal 88(6) 1046-1057 (2016)
AbstractTricin [5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one], a flavone, was recently established as an authentic monomer in grass lignification that likely functions as a nucleation site. It is linked onto lignin as an aryl alkyl ether by radical coupling with monolignols or their acylated analogs. However, the level of tricin that incorporates into lignin remains unclear. Herein, three lignin characterization methods: acidolysis; thioacidolysis; and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage; were applied to quantitatively assess the amount of lignin-integrated tricin. Their efficiencies at cleaving the tricin-(4′–O–β)-ether bonds and the degradation of tricin under the corresponding reaction conditions were evaluated. A hexadeuterated tricin analog was synthesized as an internal standard for accurate quantitation purposes. Thioacidolysis proved to be the most efficient method, liberating more than 91% of the tricin with little degradation. A survey of different seed-plant species for the occurrence and content of tricin showed that it is widely distributed in the lignin from species in the family Poaceae (order Poales). Tricin occurs at low levels in some commelinid monocotyledon families outside the Poaceae, such as the Arecaceae (the palms, order Arecales) and Bromeliaceae (Poales), and the non-commelinid monocotyledon family Orchidaceae (Orchidales). One eudicotyledon was found to have tricin (Medicago sativa, Fabaceae). The content of lignin-integrated tricin is much higher than the extractable tricin level in all cases. Lignins, including waste lignin streams from biomass processing, could therefore provide a large and alternative source of this valuable flavone, reducing the costs, and encouraging studies into its application beyond its current roles.
Description12 páginas.-- 4 figuras.-- 3 tablas.-- 59 referencias.-- Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13315
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13315
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/155976
DOI10.1111/tpj.13315
E-ISSN1365-313X
Appears in Collections:(IRNAS) Artículos
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