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Revealing stepwise mechanisms in dipolar cycloaddition reactions: computational study of the reaction between nitrones and isocyanates

AutorDarù, Andrea; Roca-López, David ; Tejero, Tomás ; Merino, Pedro
Fecha de publicación2016
EditorAmerican Chemical Society
CitaciónJournal of Organic Chemistry 81(2): 673-680 (2016)
ResumenThe mechanism of cycloaddition reactions of nitrones with isocyanates has been studied using density functional theory (DFT) methods at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The exploration of the potential energy surfaces associated with two reactive channels leading to 1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-5-ones and 1,4,2-dioxazolidines revealed that the cycloaddition reaction takes place through a concerted mechanism in gas phase and in apolar solvents but a stepwise mechanism in polar solvents. In stepwise mechanisms, the first step of the reaction is a rare case in which the nitrone oxygen acts as a nucleophile by attacking the central carbon atom of the isocyanate (interacting with the π-system of the Ci = O bond) to give an intermediate. The corresponding transition structure is stabilized by an attractive electrostatic interaction favored in a polar medium. The second step of the reaction is the rate-limiting one in which the formation of 1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-5-ones or 1,4,2-dioxazolidines is decided. Calculations indicate that formation of 1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-5-ones is favored both kinetically and thermodynamically independently of the solvent, in agreement with experimental observations. Noncovalent interactions (NCI) and topological analysis of the gradient field of electron localization function (ELF) bonding confirmed the observed interactions.
Versión del editorhttps://doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.5b02645
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b02645
e-issn: 1520-6904
issn: 0022-3263
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