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Biodiversity and cleaning of phototrophic biofilms in Cueva del Tesoro, Rincón de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain

AutorJurado, Valme ; Hernández Mariné, M.; Hernández Mariné, M.; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo ; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo
Fecha de publicación22-may-2017
EditorRed de ciencia y tecnología para la conservación del patrimonio cultural
CitaciónTechnoheritage pág. 205 (2017)
ResumenCaves are considered experimental locations of remarkable geological, ecological and microbiological interest, with diverse compartments that differ in physical, chemical and microbial composition. The study of the microbial diversity is important for many different reasons, but perhaps one of the most important is that caves may be potential sources of novel microorganisms producing bioactive compounds of medical interest. In the last few years Cueva del Tesoro has been investigated regarding the need to control phototrophic biofilms colonizing cave speleothems. Cleaning of caves and speleothems should be preceded by an inventory of species and testing of treatment protocols due to the fact that cleaning with biocides revealed important negative effects in some caves. We observed that the green phototrophic biofilms in this cave were uncommon and presented some characteristics worthy of study. These communities were triggered by the artificial lighting which is located in selected places along the visitor´s trail. The assemblages were mainly composed of Cyanobacteria (Friedmannia sp., Nostoc sp., Phormidium sp., Gleocapsa-like members, etc.) Chlorophyta (Friedmannia sp., Chlorella sp, Choricystis sp.), Rhodophyta (Cyanidium sp.), Bacillariophyta (Diadesmis contenta). Some locations develop abundant populations of the bryophyte Eucladium verticillatum. Some of the Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta are parasitized by unknown virus-like structures located on the cell walls, a topic of potential scientific interest. Regarding the bacteria, three novel species are being studied and will be described: Acinetobacter thesauricus, Bacillus thesauricus and Paracoccus speluncae. In addition, two new species of the fungal genus Aspergillus were described: Aspergillus thesauricus and Aspergillus baeticus. The species name thesauricus refers to the place where the bacterial and fungal species were first isolated and described. We tested three cleaning methods: i) Mechanical cleaning with liquid nitrogen, ii) Cleaning with sodium hypochlorite and iii) Cleaning with hydrogen peroxide. The most effective method was the use of hydrogen peroxide which was used by the restoration company carrying out the works. In addition, a remodelling of the lighting system and installation of new LED lamps in more appropriate places were suggested. Cueva del Tesoro revealed to harbour a rich bacterial, fungal and algal diversity. The removal and cleaning of the biofilms was focused on biodeteriorated walls and speleothems. However, the analysis of the microbial communities revealed that this cave seems to be an important reservoir of microbial diversity, which suggests that in addition to cleaning and control of the biofilms, some actions are needed to preserve this cave and its microbial diversity. In fact, it was proposed and accepted by the managing cave authority to leave some reservoirs of biofilms in the cave, distant from the rock art galleries, that does not represent a threat for the cultural heritage, in order to preserve biodiversity.
DescripciónPóster presentado en la S7. Biodeterioration: fundamentals, present and future perspectives. Session in honour of Prof. Cesáreo Sáiz Jiménez del 3rd International Congress Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage.-- Technoheritage 2017 21-24th May 2017, Cádiz, Spain
Versión del editorhttp://technoheritage2017.uca.es/scientific-program/
Aparece en las colecciones: (IRNAS) Comunicaciones congresos
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