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Are EPA, DPA and DHA equally effective to modulate ruminal biohydrogenation in cows? A comparative in vitro study

AuthorsToral, Pablo G. ; Hervás, Gonzalo ; Carreño, David ; Leskinen, H.; Belenguer, Álvaro ; Shingfield, Kevin J.; Frutos, Pilar
Lipid metabolism
Trans fatty acid
Issue DateJun-2017
PublisherAmerican Dairy Science Association
CitationJournal of Dairy Science 100( Sup. 2): 221(2017)
ADSA Annual Meeting #260 (2017)
AbstractMarine lipid supplements are rich in very long chain n-3 polyunsaturatedfatty acids (PUFA) that inhibit the ruminal saturation of trans-11 18:1 and,consequently, may enhance the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA) in milk and meat. In this regard, docosahexaenoic acid(DHA, 22:6n-3) has been suggested to increase total trans-18:1accumulation in the rumen to a greater extent than eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA, 20:5n-3), but information about changes in individual 18:1 isomers isvery limited. Furthermore, although EPA and DHA are accepted to be themain responsible for this modulatory effect on ruminal biohydrogenation(BH), the contribution of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3), the thirdmost abundant n-3 PUFA in marine lipids, remains unknown. The aim of thisstudy was to compare the impact of EPA, DPA and DHA on the BH of dietaryC18 fatty acids, using batch cultures of rumen microorganisms andcannulated cows as inocula donors. The 3 PUFA were added at a dose of 2%of incubated substrate (the TMR fed to the animals; 50:50 forageconcentrate ratio) and effects were examined after 24 h of incubation. Datawere subjected to ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4. Overall,EPA and DHA were equally effective to increase the concentration oftrans-11 18:1 (on average, +79% compared with the control; P < 0.001),suggesting that supplements containing differing EPA/DHA ratios (e.g., fishoils or marine algae) would have comparable effects at the same PUFAlevel. However, DHA further promoted alternative BH pathways that lead totrans-10 18:1 accumulation (+205% relative to the control; P < 0.01). Thesaturation of cis-18:1 and non-conjugated 18:2 isomers was alsoconstrained, particularly by DHA in the former case and by EPA in the latter.Increases in trans-11 cis-15 + trans-10,cis-15 18:2 and in trans-9,trans-1418:2 (P < 0.001) may indicate that EPA had specific effects on 18:3n-3metabolism. Only minor variations in ruminal BH intermediates wereobserved in response to DPA (e.g., increments in trans-10,trans-13 andcis-15 18:1; P < 0.05), which suggests a low contribution of this PUFA tothe action of marine lipids.
DescriptionComunicación oral presentada al: 2017 ADSA Annual Meeting #260. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Estados Unidos), 25-28 de junio de 2017.
Publisher version (URL)https://www.adsa.org/2017/abstracts.asp
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