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Beyond Conus: Phylogenetic relationships of Conidae based on complete mitochondrial genomes

AuthorsUribe, Juan E.; Puillandre, Nicolas; Zardoya, Rafael
Issue DateFeb-2017
CitationMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107: 142-151 (2017)
AbstractUnderstanding how the extraordinary taxonomic and ecological diversity of cone snails (Caenogastropoda: Conidae) evolved requires a statistically robust phylogenetic framework, which thus far is not available. While recent molecular phylogenies have been able to distinguish several deep lineages within the family Conidae, including the genera Profundiconus, Californiconus, Conasprella, and Conus (and within this one, several subgenera), phylogenetic relationships among these genera remain elusive. Moreover, the possibility that additional deep lineages may exist within the family is open. Here, we reconstructed with probabilistic methods a molecular phylogeny of Conidae using the newly sequenced complete or nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the following nine species that represent all main Conidae lineages and potentially new ones: Profundiconus teramachii, Californiconus californicus, Conasprella wakayamaensis, Lilliconus sagei, Pseudolilliconus traillii, Conus (Kalloconus) venulatus, Conus (Lautoconus) ventricosus, Conus (Lautoconus) hybridus, and Conus (Eugeniconus) nobilis. To test the monophyly of the family, we also sequenced the nearly complete mt genomes of the following three species representing closely related conoidean families: Benthomangelia sp. (Mangeliidae), Tomopleura sp. (Borsoniidae), and Glyphostoma sp. (Clathurellidae). All newly sequenced conoidean mt genomes shared a relatively constant gene order with rearrangements limited to tRNA genes. The reconstructed phylogeny recovered with high statistical support the monophyly of Conidae and phylogenetic relationships within the family. The genus Profundiconus was placed as sister to the remaining genera. Within these, a clade including Californiconus and Lilliconus + Pseudolilliconus was the sister group of Conasprella to the exclusion of Conus. The phylogeny included a new lineage whose relative phylogenetic position was unknown (Lilliconus) and uncovered thus far hidden diversity within the family (Pseudolilliconus). Moreover, reconstructed phylogenetic relationships allowed inferring that the peculiar diet of Californiconus based on worms, mollusks, crustaceans and fish is derived, and reinforce the hypothesis that the ancestor of Conidae was a worm hunter. A chronogram was reconstructed under an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock, which dated the origin of the family shortly after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (about 59 million years ago) and the divergence among main lineages during the Paleocene and the Eocene (56–30 million years ago).
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.10.008
issn: 1095-9513
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