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dc.contributor.authorDiapouli, Evangeliaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorManousakas, Manousos Ioannises_ES
dc.contributor.authorVratolis, Sterioses_ES
dc.contributor.authorVasilatou, Vasilikies_ES
dc.contributor.authorPateraki, Stes_ES
dc.contributor.authorBairachtari, Kyriaki A.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorQuerol, Xavieres_ES
dc.contributor.authorAmato, Fulvioes_ES
dc.contributor.authorAlastuey, Andréses_ES
dc.contributor.authorKaranasiou, Angelikies_ES
dc.contributor.authorLucarelli, Francoes_ES
dc.contributor.authorNava, Silviaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorCalzolai, Giuliaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorGianelle, Vorne L.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorColombi, Cristinaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorAlves, Célia Anjoses_ES
dc.contributor.authorCustódio, Daniloes_ES
dc.contributor.authorPio, Casimiroes_ES
dc.contributor.authorSpyrou, Christoses_ES
dc.contributor.authorKallos, George B.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorEleftheriadis, Konstantinoses_ES
dc.identifier.citationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 (5): 3673-3685 (2017)es_ES
dc.description.abstractThe contribution of natural sources to ambient air particulate matter (PM) concentrations is often not considered; however, it may be significant for certain areas and during specific periods of the year. In the framework of the AIRUSE-LIFE+ project, state-of-the-art methods have been employed for assessing the contribution of major natural sources (African dust, sea salt and forest fires) to PM concentrations, in southern European urban areas. 24h measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass and chemical composition were performed over the course of a year in five cities: Porto, Barcelona, Milan, Florence and Athens. Net African dust and sea-salt concentrations were calculated based on the methodologies proposed by the EC (SEC 2011/208). The contribution of uncontrolled forest fires was calculated through receptor modelling. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the calculation of African dust was also performed, in order to identify major parameters affecting the estimated net dust concentrations. African dust contribution to PM concentrations was more pronounced in the eastern Mediterranean, with the mean annual relative contribution to PM10 decreasing from 21% in Athens, to 5% in Florence, and around 2% in Milan, Barcelona and Porto. The respective contribution to PM2. 5 was calculated equal to 14% in Athens and from 1.3 to 2.4% in all other cities. High seasonal variability of contributions was observed, with dust transport events occurring at different periods in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin. Sea salt was mostly related to the coarse mode and also exhibited significant seasonal variability. Sea-salt concentrations were highest in Porto, with average relative contributions equal to 12.3% for PM10. Contributions from uncontrolled forest fires were quantified only for Porto and were low on an annual basis (1.4 and 1.9% to PM10 and PM2. 5, respectively); nevertheless, contributions were greatly increased during events, reaching 20 and 22% of 24h PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations, respectively. © Author(s) 2017.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors gratefully acknowledge (i) the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and READY website (http://www.ready.noaa.gov); (ii) the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre for the provision of the BSC-DREAM8b (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) model (http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/ BSC-DREAM/); and (iii) Andreas Stohl (NILU), Gerhard Wotawa and Petra Seibert (Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, Vienna) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast) for the provision of FLEXTRA model. This work was funded by the AIRUSE LIFE+ (ENV/ES/584) EU project. Financial support from the EnTeC FP7 Capacities programme (REGPOT-2012-2013-1, FP7, ID: 316173) projects is also acknowledgedes_ES
dc.publisherEuropean Geosciences Uniones_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectPM2. 5es_ES
dc.subjectUrban ambientes_ES
dc.titleAIRUSE-LIFE +: Estimation of natural source contributions to urban ambient air PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations in southern Europe - Implications to compliance with limit valueses_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commissiones_ES
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