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Title

Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

AuthorsSteckbauer, Alexandra; Ramajo, Laura; Hendriks, Iris E. ; Fernández, Miriam; Lagos, Nelson A.; Prado, Luis; Duarte, Carlos M.
Issue Date10-Jul-2015
PublisherFrontiers Media
CitationFrontiers in Marine Science 2 (2015)
AbstractOcean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30'S, 71°37'W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00049
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/151654
DOI10.3389/fmars.2015.00049
Identifiersdoi: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00049
issn: 2296-7745
Appears in Collections:(IMEDEA) Artículos
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