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Heme-regulated eIF2α kinase modulates hepatic FGF21 and is activated by PPARβ/δ deficiency

AutorZarei, Mohammad; Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Valverde, Ángela M.; Villaroya, Francesc; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel
Fecha de publicación2016
EditorAmerican Diabetes Association
CitaciónDiabetes 65(10): 3185-3199 (2016)
ResumenFibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a peptide hormone with pleiotropic effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, is considered a target for the treatment of diabetes. We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) b/d deficiency in hepatic FGF21 regulation. Increased Fgf21 expression was observed in the livers of PPARb/d-null mice and in mouse primary hepatocytes when this receptor was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Increased Fgf21 was associated with enhanced protein levels in the heme-regulated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a (eIF2a) kinase (HRI). This increase caused enhanced levels of phosphorylated eIF2a and activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, which is essential for Fgf21-induced expression. siRNA analysis demonstrated that HRI regulates Fgf21 expression in primary hepatocytes. Enhanced Fgf21 expression attenuated tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, as demonstrated by using a neutralizing antibody against FGF21. Of note, increased Fgf21 expression in mice fed a high-fat diet or hepatocytes exposed to palmitate was accompanied by reduced PPARb/d and activation of the HRI-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway. Moreover, pharmacological activation of HRI increased Fgf21 expression and reduced lipid-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance, but these effects were not observed in Fgf21-null mice. Overall, these findings suggest that HRI is a potential target for regulating hepatic FGF21 levels.
Identificadoresdoi: 10.2337/db16-0155
e-issn: 1939-327X
issn: 0012-1797
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