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Discovery of the first dual GSK3β inhibitor/Nrf2 inducer. A new multitarget therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease

AuthorsGameiro, Isabel; Michalska, Patrycja; Tenti, Giammarco; Cores, Ángel; Buendía Abaitua, Izaskun; Rojo, Ana I. ; Georgakopoulos, Nikolaos D.; Hernández, Jesús M. ; Ramos, María Teresa; Wells, Geoffrey; López, Manuela G.; Cuadrado, Antonio ; Menéndez, Carlos; León Martínez, Rafael
Issue Date2017
PublisherNature Publishing Group
CitationScientific Reports 7: 45701 (2017)
AbstractThe formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have emerged as key targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. These pathological hallmarks are closely related to the over-activity of the enzyme GSK3β and the downregulation of the defense pathway Nrf2-EpRE observed in AD patients. Herein, we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a new family of multitarget 2,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles as dual GSK3β inhibitors and Nrf2 inducers. These compounds are able to inhibit GSK3β and induce the Nrf2 phase II antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathway at micromolar concentrations, showing interesting structure-activity relationships. The association of both activities has resulted in a remarkable anti-inflammatory ability with an interesting neuroprotective profile on in vitro models of neuronal death induced by oxidative stress and energy depletion and AD. Furthermore, none of the compounds exhibited in vitro neurotoxicity or hepatotoxicity and hence they had improved safety profiles compared to the known electrophilic Nrf2 inducers. In conclusion, the combination of both activities in this family of multitarget compounds confers them a notable interest for the development of lead compounds for the treatment of AD.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45701
Identifiersdoi: 10.1038/srep45701
issn: 2045-2322
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