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Genetic improvement and genetically modified microorganisms

AuthorsGonzález García, Ramón ; Tronchoni, Jordi ; Quirós Asensio, Manuel ; Morales, Pilar
Experimental evolution
Interspecific hybrid yeasts
Sexual hybridization
Random mutagenesis
Genetic engineering
Wine yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Oenococcus oeni
Conventional genetic improvement
Issue Date2016
CitationWine Safety, Consumer Preference, and Human Health: 71-96 (2016)
AbstractNowadays, any reflection about wine preferences and the impact of this important constituent of the Mediterranean diet on human health must take into account the current production context, which has extremely evolved during the last few decades. The number of technological advances with potential or hypothetical impact on wine quality as a whole is extremely diverse, and almost any novelty, agronomical, technological, or microbiological, raises arguments involving not only quality and safety considerations but also trade and ideological ones. Although only marginally affected, the winemaking industry has not totally escaped some controversy concerning the global debate on genetic engineering as a tool to improve yield and quality in the agro-food industry. In this chapter we focus on all methodologies historically developed for the genetic improvement of starter wine microorganisms, including not only the highly debated GMO techniques but a number of alternative genetic tools. These non-GMO alternatives often offer great technical advantages while avoiding the most controversial sides associated to genetic improvement. Indeed, some of them are actually undergoing an authentic revival. Both the basic principles behind these techniques and the improvement purposes currently pursued are treated in different sections. For the sake of brevity, and despite many initial advances in this field were fuelled by research on laboratory yeast strains, examples detailed in this chapter emphasise on research involving authentic winemaking yeast and bacterial strains or its direct derivatives. Marketing and regulatory considerations are extremely relevant in this field and are also discussed in the context of the current regulatory framework, trying to identify the most probable lines of development of these technologies in the near future, and their potential to reach the real wine market in the short or mid-term.
DescriptionEditors: M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas; Begoña Bartolomé Suáldea
Publisher version (URL)http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24514-0_4
Identifiersisbn: 978-3-319-24512-6
Appears in Collections:(ICVV) Libros y partes de libros
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