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Ischemic brain injury: New insights on the protective role of melatonin

AutorRamos, Eva; Patiño, Paloma; Reiter, Russel J.; Gil-Martín, Emilio; Marco-Contelles, José ; Parada, Esther; Ríos, Cristobal de los; Romero, Alejandro ; Egea, Javier
Palabras claveFree radicals
Brain ischemia
Fecha de publicación2017
CitaciónFree Radical Biology and Medicine 104: 32- 53 (2017)
ResumenStroke represents one of the most common causes of brain's vulnerability for many millions of people worldwide. The plethora of physiopathological events associated with brain ischemia are regulate through multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of oxidative stress process, Ca dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, proinflammatory mediators, excitotoxicity and/or programmed neuronal cell death. Understanding this cascade of molecular events is mandatory in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for stroke. In this review article, we have highlighted the pleiotropic effects of melatonin to counteract the multiple processes of the ischemic cascade. Additionally, experimental evidence supports its actions to ameliorate ischemic long-term behavioural and neuronal deficits, preserving the functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier, inducing neurogenesis and cell proliferation through receptor-dependent mechanism, as well as improving synaptic transmission. Consequently, the synthesis of melatonin derivatives designed as new multitarget-directed products has focused a great interest in this area. This latter has been reinforced by the low cost of melatonin and its reduced toxicity. Furthermore, its spectrum of usages seems to be wide and with the potential for improving human health. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying melatonin¿s actions need to be further exploration and accordingly, new clinical studies should be conducted in human patients with ischemic brain pathologies.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.01.005
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.01.005
issn: 0891-5849
e-issn: 1873-4596
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